Tax-Equivalent Yield Calculator

When considering investing in municipal bonds, you should evaluate yields on a tax-equivalent basis, taking into account your tax liability on the interest earned from each.

  • Federally tax-exempt bonds typically yield less income than taxable bonds.
  • State and local income tax-exempt bonds may yield less than those whose interest is taxed in a particular jurisdiction.

What is your tax rate?

Incomes higher than $250,000 have NII taxes included

Federal Rate



State Income



Total Tax Rate


Choose a fund

You've selected an in-state municipal fund
which currently yields 2.47%.

There are other types of bond funds to consider...

To get the equivalent yield as the in-state municipal
fund, each fund would have to yield:
Out-of-state muni
U.S. Treasuries
Other taxable funds
MA income tax
Federal income tax
MA + Federal income tax
...because a portion of the yield would go toward taxes!




Putnam Massachusetts Tax Exempt Income Fund

— or —

  See how this fund stacks up against its peers with FundVisualizer®



The output of this calculator is for educational purposes only and should not be considered investment, legal or tax advice as is not intended to serve as the primary or sole basis for investment or tax-planning decisions. It is intended for U.S. individual taxpayers residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, and is not applicable to trusts, estates, corporations or persons subject to special rules under federal, state or local income tax laws. The taxes calculated on investment income does not apply to funds and accounts held outside qualified retirement plans and other tax-deferred or tax-exempt investments.

Laws of a particular state, or laws which may be applicable to a particular situation, may have an impact on the applicability, accuracy, or completeness of information provided. Putnam does not guarantee that the content is accurate, complete, or timely, or that the calculator produces accurate or complete results.

For more individualized information, consult your tax advisor or investment professional. You bear sole responsibility for any decisions made based on the output of this calculator. The calculator makes certain assumptions that may not apply to you. The calculator has many inherent limitations, and individual results may vary.

Calculator assumptions

The calculator displays the federal and state tax rates assumed in calculating tax equivalent yields based on a chosen income level and filing status. Indicated rates are those that apply to an incremental dollar of additional income, which may vary from your average tax rates. The 3.8% net investment income (NII) federal tax applies to individuals, estates and trusts with modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) above applicable threshold amounts ($200,000 for single and head of household; $250,000 for married filing jointly). While reasonable efforts are made to make timely updates to tax rates and income tax brackets used by this calculator, there may be a delay in when the tool reflects those changes.

The calculator does not take into account:

  • Reductions and limits on federal itemized deductions
  • State and local taxes are not deducted from your federal tax rate. Depending on your personal scenario, this may cause the resulting yield to be overstated
  • Federal alternative minimum tax (AMT)
  • State alternative minimum tax
  • Intangibles taxes levied by individual states
  • Local income tax rates imposed by cities, counties or other local jurisdictions on investment income and gains

You should review the assumed tax rates against your actual tax rates based on your individual tax situation when analyzing and interpreting this calculator's results.