More information on Putnam Cash Collateral Pool, LLC

In accordance with rules issued by the SEC, the Putnam funds may from time to time invest collateral from securities loans in the Putnam Cash Collateral Pool, LLC (the "Pool"). The Pool is not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, and its shares are not registered under the Securities Act of 1933. Interests in the Pool are currently offered only to the Putnam funds and other accounts managed by Putnam in private placement transactions that do not involve a public offering.