Current performance may be lower or higher than the quoted past performance, which cannot guarantee future results. Share price, principal value, and return will vary, and you may have a gain or a loss when you sell your shares. Performance of class Y shares assumes reinvestment of distributions and does not account for taxes. Class Y shares, available to investors through an asset-based fee program or for institutional clients, are sold without an initial sales charge and have no CDSC. Performance for class Y shares prior to their inception is derived from the historical performance of class A shares, which have not been adjusted for the lower expenses; had they, returns would have been higher. For the most recent month-end performance, please visit putnam.com.
The Morningstar RatingTM for funds, or "star rating", is calculated for managed products (including mutual funds, variable annuity and variable life subaccounts, exchange-traded funds, closed-end funds, and separate accounts) with at least a three-year history. Exchange-traded funds and open-ended mutual funds are considered a single population for comparative purposes. It is calculated based on a Morningstar Risk-Adjusted Return measure that accounts for variation in a managed product's monthly excess performance, placing more emphasis on downward variations and rewarding consistent performance. The top 10% of products in each product category receive 5 stars, the next 22.5% receive 4 stars, the next 35% receive 3 stars, the next 22.5% receive 2 stars, and the bottom 10% receive 1 star. The Overall Morningstar Rating for a managed product is derived from a weighted average of the performance figures associated with its three-, five-, and 10-year (if applicable) Morningstar Rating metrics. The weights are: 100% three-year rating for 36-59 months of total returns, 60% five-year rating/40% three-year rating for 60-119 months of total returns, and 50% 10-year rating/30% five-year rating/20% three-year rating for 120 or more months of total returns. While the 10-year overall star rating formula seems to give the most weight to the 10-year period, the most recent three-year period actually has the greatest impact because it is included in all three rating periods.
The output of this calculator is for educational purposes only and should not be considered investment, legal or tax advice as is not intended to serve as the primary or sole basis for investment or tax-planning decisions. It is intended for U.S. individual taxpayers residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, and is not applicable to trusts, estates, corporations or persons subject to special rules under federal, state or local income tax laws. The taxes calculated on investment income does not apply to funds and accounts held outside qualified retirement plans and other tax-deferred or tax-exempt investments.
Laws of a particular state, or laws which may be applicable to a particular situation, may have an impact on the applicability, accuracy, or completeness of information provided. Putnam does not guarantee that the content is accurate, complete, or timely, or that the calculator produces accurate or complete results.
For more individualized information, consult your tax advisor or investment professional. You bear sole responsibility for any decisions made based on the output of this calculator. The calculator makes certain assumptions that may not apply to you. The calculator has many inherent limitations, and individual results may vary.
The calculator displays the federal and state tax rates assumed in calculating tax equivalent yields based on a chosen income level and filing status. Indicated rates are those that apply to an incremental dollar of additional income, which may vary from your average tax rates. The 3.8% net investment income (NII) federal tax applies to individuals, estates and trusts with modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) above applicable threshold amounts ($200,000 for single and head of household; $250,000 for married filing jointly). While reasonable efforts are made to make timely updates to tax rates and income tax brackets used by this calculator, there may be a delay in when the tool reflects those changes.
The calculator does not take into account:
- Reductions and limits on federal itemized deductions
- State and local taxes are not deducted from your federal tax rate. Depending on your personal scenario, this may cause the resulting yield to be overstated
- Federal alternative minimum tax (AMT)
- State alternative minimum tax
- Intangibles taxes levied by individual states
- Local income tax rates imposed by cities, counties or other local jurisdictions on investment income and gains
You should review the assumed tax rates against your actual tax rates based on your individual tax situation when analyzing and interpreting this calculator's results.